Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information.
Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Dieses Buch ist eine strukturierte Einführung in das europaweit einheitliche Zugbeeinflussungssystem ETCS (European Train Control System). Der Autor führt in die Motivation und Rechtsgrundlagen des ETCS ein. Der Aufbau der unterschiedlichen Ausrüstungsstufen wird dargestellt und die einzelnen Komponenten der Fahrzeug- und Streckeneinrichtung beschrieben. Die umfassende Darstellung der technischen Grundprinzipien des ETCS umfasst sowohl die Sicherungsfunktionen als auch ihre Umsetzung in den unterschiedlichen Betriebsarten. Die Kenntnis dieser technischen Zusammenhänge schafft ein Verständnis, wie ETCS zukünftig einen Beitrag für einen sicheren, wirtschaftlichen und leistungsfähigen Bahnbetrieb leisten kann.
Widely known as the `tree of life', coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) provides a bountiful source for making a wide variety of healthy foods and industrial items. Its cultivation, however, has been encountering seriously destructive issues including lethal diseases and natural adversities which are currently distressing livelihoods of millions of small-holder farmers around the world. There is an urgent mandate to resolve these issues by meeting sustainable seedling production, facilitating genetic conservation, as well as developing disease identification and modern breeding. This book introduces improvements in coconut biotechnology by covering the advances in micropropagation, germplasm conservation, and molecular pathogenic diagnosis. This comprehensive volume will be a useful source of information and references to researchers, graduate students, agricultural developers, and scholars in the plant sciences. In order to benefit general readers, the book also covers fundamental aspects of biology, diversity, and evolution of this marvelous palm species.
This book examines key issues in improving the efficiency of small and medium power boiler units by adding control systems for the fuel combustion process. The original models, algorithms, software and hardware of the system developed for controlling the fuel combustion process are presented. In turn, the book presents a methodology for assessing the influence of climatic factors on the combustion process, and proposes new methods for measuring the thermophysical characteristics, which require taking into account the concentration of oxygen in the air. The system developed here was implemented on a boiler of the NIISTU-5 type, which is widely used for heat power engineering in Ukraine and other Eastern European countries. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for researchers and engineers, as well as lecturers and graduate students at higher education institutions dealing with heat engineering equipment.
This book explains, compares and evaluates the social and legal functions of adoption within a range of selected jurisdictions and on an international basis. It updates and extends the second edition published by Springer in 2009. From a standpoint of the development of adoption in England & Wales and the changes currently taking place there, it considers the process as it has evolved in other countries. It identifies themes of commonality and difference in the experience of adoption in a common law context as compared and contrasted with that of other countries. It looks at adoption in France, Sweden and other civil law countries, as well as Japan and elsewhere in Asia, including a focus on Islamic adoption. It examines the experience of indigenous people in New Zealand and Australia, contrasting the highly regulated legal process of modern western society with the traditional practice of indigenous communities such as the Maori. A new chapter studies adoption in China. The book uses the international Conventions and associated ECtHR case law to benchmark developments in national law, policy and practice and to facilitate a cross-cultural comparative analysis.
This book offers an advanced treatise of the mechanics of springs with focus on the springs for automotive industry. It demonstrates new and original results for the optimization of helical springs as well the design of disk springs and thin-walled springs and presents the new results for creep and relaxation of springs made of steel under high static loads. The fatigue of springs and weak link concept for cyclically loaded springs are enlightened. The closed form solutions of advanced problems allow the deeper understanding of spring mechanics and optimization of energy harvesters.
This book presents a snapshot of the state-of-art in the field of turbulence modeling, with an emphasis on numerical methods. Topics include direct numerical simulations, large eddy simulations, compressible turbulence, coherent structures, two-phase flow simulation and many more. It includes both theoretical contributions and experimental works, as well as chapters derived from keynote lectures, presented at the fourth Turbulence and Interactions Conference (TI 2015), which was held on June 11-14 in Cargèse, Corsica, France. This multifaceted collection, which reflects the conference´s emphasis on the interplay of theory, experiments and computing in the process of understanding and predicting the physics of complex flows and solving related engineering problems, offers a timely guide for students, researchers and professionals in the field of applied computational fluid dynamics, turbulence modeling and related areas.
The aim of the Protein Reviews is to serve as a publication vehicle for review articles that focus on crucial current vigorous aspects of protein structure, function, evolution and genetics. The volumes will appear online before they are published in a printed book. Articles are selected according to their importance to the understanding of biological systems, their relevance to the unravelling of issues associated with health and disease or their impact on scientific or technological advances and developments. The chapters in volume 18 are authored by experts in the field. They deal with aspects of structure and/or biological activity of selected proteins. The chapters review current research of the following topics: the Mechanism of channel gating and regulation of the activity of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1, Structure and function of the two-component cytotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus, Membrane Fusion and Infection involving the influenza virus hemagglutinin, The impact of arrhythmogenic mutations through the structural determination of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel, Discussion of some open questions pertaining to histone post-translational modifications and nucleosome organization in transcriptional regulation, Regulation of the extracellular SERPINA5 (protein C inhibitor) penetration through cellular membranes, Coding of Class I and II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, Nephrin phosphorylation in diabetes and chronic kidney injury, The structure-forming juncture in oxidative protein folding and the events in the ER, The polyspecificity of anti-lipid antibodies and its relevance to the development of autoimmunity. This volume is intended for research scientists, clinicians, physicians and graduate students in the fields of biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, immunology and genetics.
This book series focuses on current progress in the broad field of medical microbiology, and covers both basic and applied topics related to the study of microbes, their interactions with human and animals, and emerging issues relevant for public health. Original research and review articles present and discuss multidisciplinary findings and developments on various aspects of microbiology, infectious diseases, and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
This monograph presents a comprehensive treatment of analytical solutions to problems in the area of non-equilibrium evaporation and condensation processes. The book covers, among others, topics such as systems of conversation equations for molecular fluxes of mass, momentum and energy within the Knudsen layer, spherical growth of vapor bubbles in volumes of highly superheated liquid. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students alike.
This volume collects the papers from the World Conference on Acoustic Emission 2015 (WCAE-2015) in Hawaii. The latest research and applications of Acoustic Emission (AE) are explored, with particular emphasis on detecting and processing of AE signals, development of AE instrument and testing standards, AE of materials, engineering structures and systems, including the processing of collected data and analytical techniques as well as experimental case studies.
The book gathers high-quality research papers presented at the International Conference on Advanced Computing and Intelligent Engineering (ICACIE 2017). It includes technical sections describing progress in the fields of advanced computing and intelligent engineering, and is primarily intended for postgraduate students and researchers working in Computer Science and Engineering. However, researchers working in Electronics will also find the book useful, as it addresses hardware technologies and next-gen communication technologies.
Das vorliegende Buch zeigt Menschen mit andauernden Schmerzen konkrete Übungen der psychologischen Schmerzbewältigung, mit denen es gelingt, die Schmerzen dauerhaft zu reduzieren. Die über 30 erfolgreichen Techniken aus der Praxis, wie Achtsamkeitsübungen, Entspannungstechniken oder Hypnoseverfahren, lassen sich ohne Arzt oder Therapeut alleine zu Hause anwenden. Jede Übung wird schrittweise und einfach erklärt, ist wissenschaftlich anerkannt, ohne Nebenwirkungen und unabhängig von Schmerzursache oder Ort des Schmerzes wirksam.Auch zahlreiche Hintergrundinformationen zur Schmerzentstehung und zahlreiche Tipps aus der Praxis liefert das Buch. Die 3. Auflage erscheint komplett aktualisiert und richtet sich an alle Schmerzpatienten, die Schmerzen aktiv bewältigen wollen und an alle Therapeuten und Ärzte, die ihre Patienten dabei unterstützen mchten. Ein wertvoller Ratgeber für alle Betroffenen, die nach Alternativen und Ergänzungen zu Schmerzmitteln und medizinischer Therapie suchen.
Fühlen Sie sich niedergeschlagen und energielos? Sind Sie ständig überlastet und unzufrieden? Leiden Sie unter Ängsten und krperlichen Reaktionen wie Schwindel, Herzrasen oder -schmerzen? Der Ratgeber hilft Ihnen bei der Entscheidung, ob eine Erkrankung vorliegt, Selbsthilfe mglich oder ein Arztbesuch ntig ist. Hilfe zur Selbsthilfe bei Depression und Angst: Ursachen und Eskalationsmechanismen bei Depression, Burnout, Angst- und Panikstrung werden erklärt Schritt für Schritt die Eskalation unterbrechen, Energie gewinnen, die Ausgangsprobleme lsen Ausführliche und umsetzbare Aufgabenstellungen, die Ihnen helfen, Ihre gesamte Lebenssituation zu optimieren Im Rahmen einer ganzheitlichen Lebenskunst das Gesunde frdern und die Stärken stärken Geeignet auch als Begleitmaterial für Psychotherapie (insbesondere kognitive und achtsamkeitsbasierte Verhaltenstherapie) Mit Hrbuch zum DownloadGeschrieben für Klienten mit Angststrung und Depression, ihre Angehrigen zur Empfehlung durch Psychotherapeuten, Psychiater, Klinische Psychologen, Mitarbeiter in Beratungsstellen.
This book contains interesting findings of some state-of-the-art research in the field of signal and image processing. It contains twenty one chapters covering a wide range of signal processing applications involving filtering, encoding, classification, segmentation, clustering, feature extraction, denoising, watermarking, object recognition, reconstruction and fractal analysis. Various types of signals including image, video, speech, non-speech audio, handwritten text, geometric diagram, ECG and EMG signals, MRI, PET and CT scan images, THz signals, solar wind speed signals (SWS) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals have been dealt with. It demonstrates how new paradigms of intelligent computing like quantum computing can be applied to process and analyze signals in a most precise and effective manner. Processing of high precision signals for real time target recognition by radar and processing of brain images, ECG and EMG signals that feature in this book have significant implications in defense mechanism and medical diagnosis. There are also applications of hybrid methods, algorithms and image filters which are proving to be better than the individual techniques or algorithms. Thus the present volume, enriched in depth and variety of techniques and algorithms concerning processing of various types of signals, is likely to be used as a compact yet handy reference for the young researchers, academicians and scientists working in the domain of signal and image processing and also to the post graduate students of computer science and information technology.
This book reports on the 12th International Workshop on Railway Noise held on 12-16 September 2016 at Terrigal, Australia. It gathers peer-reviewed papers describing the latest developments in rail noise and vibration, as well as state-of-the-art reviews by distinguished experts in the field. The papers cover a broad range of rail noise topics including wheel squeal, policy, regulation and perception, wheel and rail noise, predictions, measurements and monitoring, interior noise, rail roughness, corrugation and grinding, high speed rail and aerodynamic noise, and structure-borne noise, ground-borne vibration and resilient track forms. It offers an essential reference-guide to both scientists and engineers in their daily efforts to identify, understand and solve a number of problems related to railway noise and vibration, and to achieve their ultimate goal of reducing the environmental impact of railway systems.
This book provides a comprehensive presentation of classical and advanced topics in estimation and control of dynamical systems with an emphasis on stochastic control. Many aspects which are not easily found in a single text are provided, such as connections between control theory and mathematical finance, as well as differential games.
The book is self-contained and prioritizes concepts rather than full rigor, targeting scientists who want to use control theory in their research in applied mathematics, engineering, economics, and management science. Examples and exercises are included throughout, which will be useful for PhD courses and graduate courses in general.Dr. Alain Bensoussan is Lars Magnus Ericsson Chair at UT Dallas and Director of the International Center for Decision and Risk Analysis which develops risk management research as it pertains to large-investment industrial projects that involve new technologies, applications and markets. He is also Chair Professor at City University Hong Kong.
contains the papers presented during the 6th International Conference on
Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications IBICA 2015 which was
held in Kochi, India during December 16-18, 2015. The 51 papers presented in
this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected. The 6th International
Conference IBICA 2015 has been organized to discuss the state-of-the-art as
well as to address various issues in the growing research field of Bio-inspired
Computing which is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and is
continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life
problems. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and
practitioners in the computational intelligence field..
This innovative atlas focuses on peripheral nerves and provides a brand new approach compared to regular anatomy books. Using a modern 3D approach, it offers an alternative to conventional anatomical structures. It reviews all the anatomy and the morphology of these structures from an original point of view. In these three-dimensional diagrams, as well as in the watercolor drawings enhanced with a 3D inlay, each type of nerve is depicted in a minute detail. The atlas simplifies the anatomy and make it easy and understandable by allowing readers to develop a mental "real-time 3D GPS". The integration of MRI sections related to the drawings and the descriptions of the main nerve injuries provide medical students with a flexible but effective transition to the radiological interpretation and furthers the clinical learning process. After a detailed evaluation of the morphofunctional anatomy of the peripheral nerves, the authors present a collection of relevant data on neuromuscular transmission, both from classical and recent literature, ranging from the central and peripheral nervous system to the effector muscle. This information offers a basis for understanding the physiology, the pathology, and the repair prospects of peripheral nerves from a purely theoretical point of view.The book is divided into three main parts: - Fundamental notions: from immunohistochemistry to limb innervation- The upper limb: the brachial plexus and related peripheral nerves- The lower limb: the lumbosacral plexus and related peripheral nerves
This atlas also features 261 outstanding full-colour 2D and 3D illustrations. Each picture has been designed in 2D and 3D with a combination of the original editor's personal drawings/paintings and 3D-modeling tools. This book is a valuable resource for anyone studying medicine, anaesthesiology, neurosurgery, spine surgery, pain, radiology or rheumatology and is also of high interest to the whole medical community in general.
This book contains an edited selection of the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at the first International Symposium on Qualitative Research (ISQR2016), held in Porto, Portugal, July 12th-14th, 2016. The book and the symposium features the four main application fields Education, Health, Social Sciences and Engineering and Technology and seven main subjects: Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research (theoretical studies, critical reflection about epistemological dimensions, ontological and axiological); Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies (literature review, integrating results, aggregation studies, meta -analysis, meta- analysis of qualitative meta- synthesis, meta- ethnography); Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (emphasis in research processes that build on mixed methodologies but with priority to qualitative approaches); Data Analysis Types (content analysis , discourse analysis , thematic analysis , narrative analysis , etc.); Innovative processes of Qualitative Data Analysis (design analysis, articulation and triangulation of different sources of data - images, audio, video); Qualitative Research in Web Context (eResearch, virtual ethnography, interaction analysis , latent corpus on the internet, etc.); Qualitative Analysis with Support of Specific Software (usability studies, user experience, the impact of software on the quality of research.